Thursday, April 28, 2011

Petrol RC Cars - A Common Misconception

One of the mistakes common to people new to the RC car hobby is assuming that all non-electric RC cars can just run on normal petrol (gasoline). This is a potentially huge issue, as filling up your new car with petrol could ruin the engine, leading to a very costly repair job. The reason behind this is because most of these non-electric RC cars actually run on a mixture of methane, nitromethane and oil, commonly termed as nitro fuel. This can only be bought at specialist hobby stores and is usually far more expensive than normal every day petrol.

The real confusion lies in the fact that these two distinct type of radio controlled cars are often labeled under the very misleading umbrella term of petrol RC cars or gas powered RC cars. There are of course cars that are actually gas or petrol RC cars, that can be run on the same fuel as your car, and are thus much cheaper to operate, but these are relatively few and far between, and usually also quite a bit larger. Standard nitro RC cars clock in at between 20 - 60 cm (8 - 24 inches) in length, while typical petrol RC cars are generally just under a metre (3 ft.) in length. Size is by far the easiest method of telling the two apart at a glance, but it is also important to read the instructions that came with the car. If the word nitro is anywhere in it, don't even think of trying to run it on petrol.

The engines differ a bit, hence the need to avoid mixing the up which fuel to use, as nitro RC cars use a glow engine as opposed to the standard petrol engine found in petrol RC cars. This means that Nitro RC cars have a glow plug instead of a spark plug, which to ignite the fuel must become hot. This is achieved by using a glow starter, which is usually separate from the car, and is only used to start it and is then removed. Nitro fuel is less explosive than petrol, so runs at a higher temperature, meaning the entire engine design is different. Think of it as the difference between a petrol and diesel engine in you everyday car.

The only real advantage (it is however a quite major one) of petrol RC cars over nitro RC cars is that they are so incredibly cheaper to run. In fact, even at current petrol prices, nitro fuel still generally costs about 5 times more, and it can also be rather harder to source. The increase in size could also be seen as an advantage to some, offering a closeness to full size cars in the way it behaves when driving. They are also easier to run and maintain, not being so finickity in regards to the climate and not requiring constant tuning in the way that nitro RC cars seem to. All in all it is really the preference of the individual that decides which sort to get, especially if they appreciate and understand the differences between them.


Tuesday, April 26, 2011

How to Train Safely to Run Hills

When world championship marathoner Brad Huston became a coach of the sport in which he had excelled in competition, he learned an interesting fact-many of the fastest and strongest runners have done some "hill work" as part of their training programs.

Hill work, where athletes train to run hills, has proven to be an effective training tool for all sports where high running speeds are essential. It is a tool that can help to mold championship runners.

Benefits of Hill Running
Many studies have shown that the athletes that train to run hills have a definite advantage over their flat surface counterparts. One such study, published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology, proved this point by engaging runners in an intensive, 6-week period of hill running. At the end of the six weeks, these runners showed a significant increase in leg strength and running distance.

Brian Mac, a performance coach with the United Kingdom's National Governing Body for Track and Field Athletics, has seen similar improvements in his athletes. The reason that hill running is such a great training tool, says Mac, is that the runner is using his or her own body as resistance. This forces runners to use muscles that they do not normally use while running on flat surfaces.

Moreover, the muscles that they do use-calves, glutes, hamstrings, achilles tendons-contract more quickly when running uphill, which strengthens these muscles in a much shorter period of time than they would by running the same distance on a flat surface.

But there are hazards in store for those who train to run hills, hazards that can be minimized with a bit of knowledge and a lot of planning.

Running Hills-Safely
Douglas Lenz, Director of Fitness and Wellness for Chambersburg Health Services (Chambersburg, PA), told Sports Chiropractic & Rehabilitation, "The biggest problem with hill training is insufficient preparation, too much volume, and/or too little recovery time."

Far too many runners err in one, or all three, of these aspects of hill running, mistakes that can lead to injury, discouragement, and failure.

Preparing to Train to Run Hills
Adequate preparation is a must for successful, injury-free, hill running. Preparing to run hills may be a slow process, but it ensures ultimate success in this endeavor. To prepare to train to run hills, one must:

- Build up to it slowly. Uphill running should never be attempted unless the individual has already achieved a certain amount of physical conditioning (preferably by running on flat surfaces.)
- Stretch before running. This advice applies to both running uphill and on flat surfaces. A period of gentle stretching exercise before a run protects the athlete from injury.
- Stay hydrated. The importance of hydration cannot be underestimated. For those who engage in intensive exercise (such as running uphill) two percent of their body fluids can be lost through perspiration. Consequently, it is essential to frequently replace these fluids.
- Cultivate the right mindset. Many newcomers to hill running make a tiny hill into a mountain-in their minds. This makes hill running much harder than it needs to be. In truth, running uphill is the same as any other run with just a few differences in angle, intensity, and muscle engagement. A little bit of knowledge of these differences, and how to adapt the body to them, can alleviate the fear that one may have when he or she begins to train to run hills.

Appropriate Volume

Many runners make the mistake of trying to maintain the same speed when they run uphill as when they run on flat surfaces. The incline of the hill, however, requires a slower speed. Trying to maintain, or increase, the speed while running uphill will only lead to exhaustion and possible injury. To ensure appropriate speed, a runner must:

- Pace him (or her) self. Because running uphill requires more energy, maintaining a proper pace is essential. When athletes train to run hills, a steady, even stride should be employed. But this stride should be suitable for the amount of effort expended. For a beginner, the stride (and speed) is expected to be slower than those of accomplished hill runners.
- Maintain the same amount of effort. Speed should never be increased while running uphill. This can lead to injury.

Proper Recovery Time
Experts recommend that hill training be implemented no more than twice per week. The muscles need time to repair themselves from the more strenuous effort required of them in running uphill. In addition, after running uphill, one should:

- Cool down. This requires 5 to 10 minutes of light jogging, which will help the muscles to relax from the intensity of hill running.
- Listen to the body. If there is some unusual discomfort, or pain, in the body after physical exertion, one should make proper allowances for it. For those who train to run hills, this could include delaying the next training session or shortening the current one.

Simple Hill Running Tips
To train to run hills-safely-the following tips should be followed:

1. Warmup on rolling hills for approximately 15 minutes before starting the training session.
2. Employ proper running form:
- Back straight
- Head up
- Arms at 90-degree angles, rotating at the shoulders as opposed to side to side
- Knee lifts that are slightly higher than those typically used for running on flat surfaces

3. Lean forward slightly while running uphill.
4. Pump arms
5. Maintain a steady pace
6. Jog slowly on each downhill descent
7. Cool off with a 5 to 10 minute leisurely jog on a flat surface.

Avoid Overtraining
The pressure placed on the legs and the ankles during uphill runs is much greater than on flat surfaces. Therefore, it is highly recommended that a limit be placed on the amount of hill training. Any incline drills are meant to complement the existing running workout; not rival it.

A good rule of thumb is to calculate the number of hills that will likely be encountered during a typical run and adjust the training periods to reflect this percentage.

Although the effort it takes to train to run hills can be time-consuming and exhausting, the increase in strength, speed, and agility will be well worth the energy expenditure. Just ask any championship runner.

For more information about how to train to run hills visit


Unsecured Personal Loans - Get Easy Finance Without Any Security

Do you do not acquire one? For such an individual, unsecured personal loans have been designed. With the support of this financial facility, the borrower can simply cut off any collateral for the craved cash. You being a property owner or a tenant cannot be a matter of concern for the cash lenders.

You would acquire risk free cash as the procedure of asset evaluation is not at all followed. Non of your priced dominion such as car, stock papers, house and so on are needed in the form of a collateral. However, the lender doesn't want a pledge but he charges rate of interest that is little higher to lower the risk factor for him self. Unsecured loans provide credit that falls from the range of £1000 to £25000, that has to be settled in the suitable pay back time duration of 1 to 10 years.

The amount that gets sanctioned to you varies on your settlement capability and financial state. Now you can do those things which have been listed out by you. There number of things that can be done with the help of such funds. This includes one can pay the credit card installments, pending electricity bills, can make changes in the decor of the home, monthly expenses, can come up with educational and medical wants and lot more.

The borrower can easily and simply apply Online by just filling an application form, which would be offered on the website of the funds lenders. These forms do not have any sought of obligations and are even free of cost. The borrower's just need to provide various personal information regarding himself and his current bank account such as name, age, identity proof, address proof and so on. Once the procedure of verification is complete, you would get an instant approval.

The funds would reach you, as soon as possible. There is no need for you to take tensions if you have been suffering from credit mistakes in the past and have become a defaulter or a debtor as such as the borrower's gets an approval. So there is no need to worry if you are having bad credit history, still you can easily avail the unsecured loans uk as per the terms and conditions of the lender.

SUMMARY – Unsecured personal loans assign to any type of debt or usual liability that is not at all collateral by means of claim on any borrower's assets. In case there is a financial crises, it really becomes difficult to satisfy various imperative financial requirements that can be free by the personal debts unsecured.o you wish to get control of reliable financial assistance? You do not want to put your property at risk

Monday, April 25, 2011

Hair Styles - How To Get The Most Flattering Hair Style

Do you ever wake up in the morning, look in the mirror and just want to crawl back in bed because of the way your hair looks? We all have bad hair days, but if your bad hair days are turning into bad hair weeks or months, then you might need some help.

Many people look to celebrities to find a new hair style---spending tons of money on all kinds of magazines only to frantically tear thru the pages in search of the perfect hair style.

Then you go to your salon and get that fantastic celebrity hair style only to discover (usually after the first shampoo) that you need to spend about an hour to get it to look the same way.

There are 5 important questions you should ask yourself if you want to get the most flattering hair style that will work for you.

1. How much time you are willing to spend every day fixing your hair? Include hair drying, hair straightening, hair curling, special conditioning, styling, etc. Be realistic about your lifestyle and hair grooming habits. If you don't have the time, don't get a high maintenance hair style.

2. Is your hair in good condition? Don't plan on doing any sort of perms, hair straightening, extensions, bleaching if your hair is damaged or brittle.

3. Do you know what your face shape is? Your face shape is very important for selecting any hair style. What will look great on a square face shape might not look good at all on a round face. See for suggested hair styles for each face shape.

4. Are you generally happy with your hair stylist? Does your hair stylist give you instructions about how to style your hair at home? Do they address all of your concerns about your hair or hair style?

The hair stylist plays a vital role in the way your hair style will look from day to day. Sometimes you can leave the salon looking great--for a day or two. Then it's all downhill after that. You need to get a hair style that YOU can make look great on your own. This can require special instructions from the hair stylist along with specific hair care products.

5. Do you know what hair styles you like and why you like them? If you explain to your stylist what you like about certain features of a hair style--i.e. long side-swept bangs or long layers in the back---the stylist may be able to add some of these features to your hair style even though the entire hair style may not be suited for your hair.

For additional information on hair styles, including celebrity hair style photos, samples of the most popular short, medium, long, updo, bridal, prom and mens hair styles, check out the galleries at

Article Source:

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Sleeping Bags - An Important Part of Camping and Hiking

If you are planning to start hiking or camping, one thing is for certain. You will definitely need a good sleeping bag. There are many questions to ask yourself to determine which one will be just right for you.

What Sleeping Bag is Best for You?

Not all sleeping bags are created equal - nor would you want them to be! My son is an avid backpacker. He often goes out for days at a time with everything he needs on his back. Not only that, but he loves to camp in the winter with below freezing temperatures. Let's compare this to my own needs.

My idea of camping is driving up to a campground and getting my gear out of the trunk. And I only like to camp in the late spring and early fall.

What does this mean for our sleeping bag needs? For one, it means that I don't need one that is rated for cold weather. I also don't need one that is extremely light weight since I am only carrying it across the camp site.

Here are a few questions you will want to ask yourself:

In what kind of weather conditions will you be using your bag?

Is weight important?

Is a compact bag important?

How much money do you have?

The Three Main Decisions

When choosing your bag, there are three basic decisions that you need to make.

What kind of fill do you need?

What does the shell need to be made of?

What bag design suits your needs?

Fill Material

Down bags used to be considered the very best on the market. It is true - they tend to last a long time and are great for many types of camping. However, with the advent of synthetic fill, down may not be the best solution in every case.

If you live in or camp in wet or damp conditions, down simply does not work. Why? It will not keep you warm when wet. Synthetic fill, on the other hand, will. Several good synthetic fills include:

Lite loft





Polyguard 3D

In addition to their warmth when wet, they are also easy to clean, resistant to mildew, and they dry fast!

Shell Materials

Once you have determined what you want your sleeping bag fill to be, you have to determine the material for the shell. Gore Tex was the "in" material for years. However, Gore-Tex does not breathe well. This means that if you sweat while in your bag, you will find that your bag gets damp and stays that way.

Good shell materials include:

Tight-weave nylon: Nowadays, nylon shells have a coating of durable water repellent (DWR). This offers both water resistance and wind resistance. If you need a more durable shell, you might want to consider getting the ripstop version.

Polyester: Polyester has the same qualities of nylon. It is both water repellent and wind resistant and comes in a ripstop variety. The big difference is in weight. If you are looking for a lightweight bag, you will probably want to avoid polyester because it is heavier than nylon.

Microfiber: Microfiber shells are even more water resistant than either nylon or polyester. They are also windproof, not just wind resistant. Additionally, microfiber shells are extremely lightweight.

Gore Dryloft: Gore Dryloft and no name brand dryloft substitutes are the most water resistant shell made. Additionally, it is the most breathable. It also happens to be the most expensive.

If your camping experiences are more similar to mine, you will not require your bag to withstand harsh conditions or cold climates. You will also not care about the weight. In this case, you can get away with the less expensive nylon or polyester shells. If, on the other hand, you are an avid camper and hiker and plan to take on something like the Appalachian Trail, you will wan tto consider the microfiber or Dryloft.

Types Of Bags

Mummy bags are "the" bag for those that want to backpack. They pack small. They are lightweight. They heat up quickly. The downside? They don't provide a lot of room, thus the name mummy bag. You truly crawl in and that is that. There is no space for rearranging!

A similar bag that provides a big more room is the semi-rectangular or modified mummy bag. The biggest difference between this bag and the mummy bag is the middle section. The head and feet are still tapered, but the middle provides much more room for moving about. If you are not quite as worried about space in your pack or you are not hiking in cold weather, this bag would probably suit you just fine.

The final type of bag is the old fashioned rectangular bag. They are typically bulky and heavy and do not heat up well. However, they have plenty of room. Although not a good bet for backpacking, they are perfectly suited for car camping.

Other Attributes to Look For

Once you have decided on the fill, the shell, and the style of bag, there are still a few things worth considering:

You will want a full side zipper. This allows you to let your feet out during warm weather camping.

You will want a double-sided zipper. If one zipper blows out, you will still be able to use your bag. This feature will keep your bag in use much longer.

You will want some kind of closure over the zipper at the top of the bag. There is nothing worse than having your bag unzip in the middle of the night!

Look for 700-800 fill power. Although a bit more expensive, it lasts much longer.

Cleaning Your Bag

Once you buy your bag, you will want to keep it in good shape. Cleaning it properly will help the longevity of your bag.

Wash infrequently. You can keep your bag clean enough to avoid washing by keeping debris out of your tent, and cleaning mud and dirt off your clothes as much as possible before climbing into the bag.

Follow the washing instructions. Washing and/or drying your bag incorrectly will cause it to wear out much faster.

Do not use a washing machine with a center agitator. Doing so will damage your bag.

Use mild powder to wash your bag. Using a liquid can damage your shell.

Do not use hot water.

Always wash on a gentle cycle.

Dry alone. Putting in other objects can damage the bag.

Tips When Using Your Bag

Making Your Sleeping Bag As Comfortable As Possible

There is no use pretending that sleeping in a sleeping bag on the cold, hard ground is going to be as comfortable as sleeping in your own bed. However, it does not have to be torture either. Here are a few tips to help you feel the most comfortable in your bag:

Don't leave your bag in the stuff sack until bedtime. Instead, just as soon as you pitch the tent, get out the sleeping bag and fluff it up.

Use a ground insulator, like closed cell foam, beneath your bag.

Never get into your bag with dirty clothes. Change into fresh, dry clothes before sleeping.

Ways to Keep Your Sleeping Bag Dry

No one likes a wet bed. Even those that are meant to keep you insulated even when wet are not as pleasant wet as dry. Here are some suggestions to keep your bag dry, even in foul weather.

Keep your bag in a waterproof stuff sack. If your bag didn't come with one, then buy one!

Line your stuff sack with a garbage bag for extra protection.

Keep your tent well ventilated. The air flowing through the tent will keep condensation from forming.

Keep your tent seams sealed so that they don't leak in the rain.

Use a plastic ground cloth under your tent.

Don't pack your bag when it's wet.

Camping, whether high adventure or car camping, is fun, especially when you have the right equipment. So, before you head out, be sure to investigate and then invest in the correct sleeping bag!


Thursday, April 21, 2011

Article Marketing Strategy: Improve Your Articles With Images

Do you watch television? Do you like art? Do you love the sunrise? Do you like looking at attractive people? Well then you are a visual person, as most of us are who can see. And when you are a visual person, you will respond to images that you see.

For instance, when I see an ad for a cold Pepsi® on a hot summer day, I start craving one. Or when I see a beautiful piece of art, it calls up memories, usually of my childhood. It is visual cues that big advertising agencies and marketers have been counting on since print ads in newspapers and then of course commercials on television. So as online marketers, we should take our cues from these bigwigs. They have poured millions of dollars into marketing which prove that imagery works.

So with that being said, as you write and publish more articles across the web – you can get one leg up on your competition by adding a “visual element” to your articles – add an image.

If you notice, for the last several weeks (maybe months), I have been adding images to my blog articles on this site. Now while I cannot do that for every article directory I submit to – I can do it on my own site and I must admit that they look great! It gives my articles a more polished look, as I also strive for the images to serve as a visual cue for the article’s topic.

Not only do I think they look more appealing to my readers, but reader statistics have shown that since I have implemented adding images to my articles – my site statistics show that people stay on my site much longer then they use to.

Where Should You Get Article Images?

Well, one time I was at a internet conference and one of the “platinum” experts there told everyone how she would go on Google, search for an image, save that image and then put it up on her site or her newsletter, etc. This was her advice to hundreds of people there! It was dead wrong.

Every time you “just grab” an image from a image search and place it in one of your articles, you are taking the chance that you are violating copyright infringement laws. Plus – many times the owner of that site paid a service for the rights to those images – but you haven’t. Now I realize that people do it, but it’s not right.

Go to these places instead…
1. – wikipedia had hundreds if not thousands of images that are free to use in anyway that you like. Now while they may not have the most “commercial” looking images, at least you know that when you use an image from this site, that you are safe.

2. – on Flickr which is a photo sharing site, you just need to make sure that you do a search for images that are available to use for commercial purposes – as most of us are running a “for profit” business online.

3. – this is my favorite stock photo site. It’s probably the most reasonably priced one, and there is a wide range of photos, clipart, illustrations, even video and audio available for your use. This is where I tend to go for my more “commerical” shots – especially ones I am using in infoproducts, etc.

4. Last but not least, you can always do a search for “free (your niche) clipart” or “free (your niche) photos” and you may be able to find a lot of free photos available for use in your articles. It may be smart to do a couple of searches for common themes in your articles and save several pics for later use – so you don’t have to do a search every time you write. I like to do this.


Greed--Not Kindness--Gets Things Done

"Who's John Stossel?"

That was Virgil Rosanke's reaction when "20/20" interviewed him for one of my TV specials. Without Rosanke and others like him, I couldn't have a steak dinner tonight, but I and most of the people he makes dinners possible for are unknown to him. He makes our dinners possible anyway.

Is Virgil Rosanke a philanthropist? No. Is he a government worker? Not that either. He's just a guy who delivers propane to heat water for cattle to drink. Why does he do it? To make money.

If pursuing profit is greed, economist Walter Williams told me, then greed is good, because it drives us to do many good things. "Those areas where people are motivated the most by greed are the areas that we're the most satisfied with: supermarkets, computers, FedEx." By contrast, areas "where people say we're motivated by 'caring'" -- public education, public housing etc. -- "are the areas of disaster in our country. . . . How much would get done," Williams wondered, "if it all depended on human love and kindness?"

Greed gets people to cooperate. If you want to benefit from other greedy people, you have to make sure they benefit from you. Consider one of the wonders of our age, the supermarket. There are thousands of products on the shelves. How'd they get there?

When I posed that question about just one of those thousands of products -- a piece of beef I bought for my dinner -- I found a trail back to an Iowa farm. That's how I learned about Virgil Rosanke, and how he learned about me.

We taped David Wiese and his family, farmers in Manning, Iowa, as they put in 14-hour days fixing fences, digging ditches, harvesting hay, and feeding the cattle. They don't do it for me and my neighbors -- but I'm glad they do it.

"Do you think it's because they love people in New York?" Williams asked. "No, they love themselves. And by promoting their own self-interest, they make sure New Yorkers have beef."

The Wieses are just the first in a long series of people who, by caring about themselves, make sure I get my steak. Wanda Nelson keeps the packing house clean. Rosanke delivers propane. Other people slaughter the cattle and butcher the beef; they rely on people who make their knives, their overalls and their protective gear. Then there are the people who make the plastic that seals the meat, who run the machines that do the sealing, who pack the meat in boxes, make the boxes, inspect the boxes, and run the freezer facilities. Still other people track orders by bar code, which means they need the people who make the bar code machines. Eventually, packed steak is delivered to Randall Gilbert, a truck driver, who hauls it to New York.

No one person made my dinner possible. It took thousands of people to get me the food. And none of them did it for me. As economist Adam Smith put it, "It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest."

Rosanke and the others don't particularly care if some TV correspondent gets his steak, yet they cooperate to make it happen, motivated by self-interest -- what many call greed. Think about that next time you listen to my colleagues sneer at the "greed" and "selfishness" of private business. They don't realize that the institution they celebrate, government, is far less effective at serving humanity.

"In a free market, you get more for yourself by serving your fellow man," said economist Williams. "You don't have to care about him, just serve him. I'd feel sorry for New Yorkers in terms of beef. If it all depended on human love and kindness, I doubt whether you would have one cow in New York."

Does anything get done based on "human love and kindness"? Well, a nonprofit group called City Harvest collects donations of restaurants' surplus food for the poor. But where does that food come from? Greedy people like Virgil Rosanke produce it, and greedy restaurateurs buy it. Kindness can only give away the goods self-love provides.


Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Loans For People On Benefits - Benefits Along With Financial Support

People on betterment find it difficult to find approvals with a lender in order to get a loan. For an individual on advantages and having poor credit score the conditions becomes worst. But don't take tensions anymore because with loans for people on benefits, people on benefit having great credit score can also get huge amount of funds to over come their day to day or urgent expenses.

As the name suggests people on benefit are advanced to individual's suffering from poor credit score. An individual facing arrears, CCJ, IVA, defaults, bankruptcy etc can get the advantages of poor credit loans. Anyone who is having a score less than 600 points is known as poor creditor. If your credit status is lower than 600 and you are on betterment then you can get poor credit loans for individual's on benefit. Poor credit loans for all the individual's on benefit can be separated into two parts, Secured poor credit loans for people on betterment and unsecured bad credit loans for individual's on benefit.

To get a secured poor credit loans for all the individual's on benefit you will have to pledge one of your assets as collateral against the lender. This can be any of your private property such as car, jewelry, home, important documents and lot more. Placing any security helps you to avail large sum of funds at very low interest rate. Under unsecured poor credit loans for all sought of individual's on benefit can be availed without pledging any of these collateral.

loans for students with bad credit are danger free loans but the interest rate is highly examined to secured bad credit loans. Also the loan sum that are available with loans for students with bad credit for all individual's on benefit is smaller than the others in comparison. You must plan the pay back duration of loan installment to avoid any further harassment. With bad credit loans for people on benefit you can simply get good amount of funds for any and every of your requirements.

SUMMARY – Poor credit hit credit scores of people with any bias. It can also hit in the difficult conditions to the credit holders people on benefits. People on benefits with loans for people on benefit are people who live on grants to meet their daily expenditures with no regular monthly income.

Mobile Payments - Collaboration is the Key

In theory, the concept of mobile payments has a strong business case, given the high market penetration rates of mobile devices, such as cellular phones and PDA?s, in many parts of the world. In addition, mobile operators and financial institutions, through the use of these devices, envision an attractive way to enable their customers to make payments. On the consumer side, users can reap the benefits of convenience, permitting them to buy goods and services from any location.

In principle, a mobile device can be used as a POS (point of sale) tool. Mobile operators and financial institutions consider this concept as the next logical step in making mobile devices a trusted payment device for consumers, acting as a payment instrument supplementing cash, cheque, credit card and debit card.

Currently, financial institutions are rolling out wireless POS capabilities to merchants which are in-turn competing with a consumer?s mobile phone. Several new services have been introduced around the world in which merchants are accepting payments from wireless POS terminals. These wireless POS terminals, for example, allow merchants to offer home delivery services in which payments are presented and accepted upon delivery of goods or services at the consumer?s location.

Wireless POS terminals use the wireless networks of mobile operators to send payment instructions to a merchant acquirer?s payment server. Consequently, wireless POS services are classified as an extension of traditional payment services. Given that in some areas of the world almost everyone will soon own a mobile phone, and most merchant locations offer POS terminals as a form of payment, it is at least conceivable that the mobile device will take over a large part of the retail payment market.

Since wireless POS implementations are an extension of current payment infrastructures, users still need to use a credit or debit card to make purchases. The convenience associated with current wireless POS methods have to do with the fact that these terminals are brought to the location of the purchase. For example, in a restaurant environment with the user paying for their bill via debit card from their seat, or for their groceries which have been delivered to their front door.

Mobile devices enable the use of numerous services, services that do not need card readers, personal computers, and modem combinations or a merchant?s wireline POS terminal. Nowadays, mobile devices have an embedded chip that can be used to store information and provide secure authorization and identification.

The Need for Interoperability

But to make these services available to the majority of mobile users, mobile payment service providers need to roll out services that offer interoperability. There have been numerous mobile payment pilots conducted that enable mobile devices to be used as a payment option, some of which have advanced into full mobile payment services (e.g. PayPal, PayBox, MovilPago). To date, we?ve discovered that the key to providing a successful mobile payment service has to do with the benefits it gives the end user and the end user's customers: convenience, security, and freedom being a few key elements.

Though the industry has a long way to go before mobile devices will become a consumer?s payment instrument of choice, to ensure the stability of a viable mobile payments infrastructure, collaboration is the key.

Both mobile operators and financial institutions have tried, with little success, to implement their own individual pilot projects. Both parties have encountered numerous difficulties. Mobile operators, for example, because of their extensive existing customer base, technical know-how and billing comprehension, seemed the most likely candidates to provide mobile payment services. However, problems associated with risk management and the collaboration of numerous providers needed to accomplish interoperability have arisen. Financial insitutions on the other hand are confronted with a limited number of users and high infrastructure costs. To remedy these problems, mobile operators and financial institutions have begun collaborating to jointly offer mobile payment services to their customers. For instance, leading Dutch direct bank ING/Postbank Nederland, has partnered with the Netherlands number three mobile carrier Telfort, to offer users mobile access to the bank?s retail applications and link user bank accounts to Telfort?s prepaid service top-up capabilities for account recharging. In this case, the fact that these two entities are taking advantage of their natural symbiosis is a big step in the right direction.

Right now there are four entities needed to make a payment via credit card (acquirers, issuers, merchants and consumers) to make a payment via mobile device, there are five (mobile operators, acquires, issuer, merchant and consumers). As a result, the ideal business model includes the cooperation between mobile operators, financial institutions, technology suppliers and industry associations to create a certain amount of standardization which will ensure the successful implementation of a strong mobile payments infrastructure.

Still, numerous issues, including limited functionality available through the current generation of networks as well as a lack of standards to name a few, are still hampering the efforts being carried out by these industry players. In addition, questions regarding successful revenue generating business models also remain.


As mentioned earlier, cell phone and PDA penetration rates are higher then they've ever been, with forecasted growth rates showing exponential increases in consumer adoption. Accordingly, industry focus should be centered around the business side. Right now it is not feasible for a mobile operator or a financial institution to role out competing services on a proprietary model that does not include interoperability. Mobile operators and financial institutions must work together to implement mobile payment services that marry a consumer?s bank account with their mobile subscription. Offering payment services should not be seen as a competitive advantage, but rather as a necessity which will drive the success of the rollout of mobile commerce.

Today we see several initiatives taking place including the creation of various industry associations designed to address the different issues associated with the mobile industry. With these activities underway-mobile operators and financial institutions are beginning to work together to roll out new payment services. Pre-paid top up, for example, is the first real commercial mobile payment application that is being introduced into several markets. Financial institutions and mobile operators are collaborating to enabling mobile subscribers to electronically pay for their pre-paid wireless accounts using several banking channels such as telephone banking, Internet banking, and ATM and mobile banking, completely automating the ?top-up? experience using SMS (Short Message Service).

Currently, payment instruments are stored in virtual wallets residing either on the mobile device or centralized on the open network service platform. Consumers register for the service through their financial institution, mobile operator or service provider, depending on how the service is setup. The registration is necessary to link the consumer?s subscription data with their financial information and provision the mobile device for the service. Future methods may see users using their mobile device as a way to simply access their bank accounts, whereby the mobile operator?s function will be simply to transport the data. In addition, smart cards issued by financial institutions may begin to become more prevalent.

As mobile services and infrastructures evolve we will begin to see the true notion of mobile payment instruments living up to the hype of ?anytime, anywhere payments.? Soon, mobile payments will become an integral part of consumer lifestyles, replacing the payment instruments we have hidden in our wallets today. It is clear, that the co-operation between mobile operators and financial institutions is needed to build a viable mobile payments offering. It is also clear that the next logical payments industry step is to provide consumers with the ability to make payments for goods and services on their mobile devices. The only true concept of ?anytime anywhere payments? is conceivable through access via a mobile device. 'Where there's a wireless, there's a way' and the key to the success of the industry is as simple as giving consumers what they want.

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Tuesday, April 12, 2011

A Study on Computer Integrated Manufacturing for Textiles

Computer Integrated manufacturing (CIM) uses computers to control the entire production process that involves engineering, production, marketing and all the support functions of a manufacturing enterprise. In the traditional business paradigm, the company is assumed as an island, i.e., an independent and self operating entity. As a company is a part of a broader matrix of business systems composed of customers, suppliers, products and global information, it leads to integration along different axes, namely geographical and functional.

Its main objective is streamlining the process of manufacturing and integrating it with all the other business functions such as financing, marketing and accounting. To eliminate the wastage, basic manufacturing functions as well as materials handling and inventory control can be simulated by computers. Nowadays there are many simulation softwares available for different applications where it is not so easy to conduct real time experiments on the real applications.

The companies which are centered and vertically integrated cannot easily adapt to the fast requirements of changes in the market. For the companies to be more efficient they need to be global and at the same time local, they should be able to operate in a coordinated as well as synchronized form and should be able to adapt to changing market conditions.

The management has to make a decision to make a product based on market opportunities, the company's strength and weakness and its strategic plan based on competitive advantage. Some of the tasks in general that a CIM has to perform includes defining the problem, developing functional, information, network organizational models and finally implementation.


The Calm up Until Now Was Only an Illusion

The calm which has, on the face of it, prevailed in southern Lebanon since the massive air force attack on June 24 of this year was virtual. The combat on the ground did not let up even for a moment. But since Hizballah did not fire Katyushas at the Galilee and the IDF succeeded, up until yesterday, in carrying out its actions in the security zone without combat losses, the war was off the front page and there was an erroneous impression of calm. Like every Lebanese illusion, this bubble also exploded. What happened yesterday could also have happened one month ago. However, the harsh results obligate an inquiry and the drawing up of lessons.

The background to the event is the change in Hizballah's combat tactics, which was carried out under pressure from the Syrians and the Lebanese government. Even today, Damascus and Beirut want Hizballah to continue applying military pressure on Israel but without causing an escalation.
It is clear to Assad that Katyushas at Kiryat Shemona will lead to the suspension of efforts to resume the political negotiations and additional damage to Lebanon's infrastructure. Therefore, Hizballah has been ordered to reduce to the minimum the shelling of IDF and SLA positions. In many instances, similar shellings have led to the "Grapes of Wrath" understandings being broken by both sides, and in the end, to Katyushas.

The organization's leaders have decided to focus on placing explosive charges in the security zone and kidnapping IDF soldiers.
Against this stepped-up activity, the IDF and SLA have made exceptional successes in recent months. Since the beginning of the year, approximately 60 charges have been uncovered. Only four of them exploded and caused casualties. Since the beginning of the year, the IDF has lost fewer soldiers than in similar periods in past years. The IDF has also succeeded in preventing the placing of charges through initiated actions on the ground. The ambush that Golani soldiers laid yesterday was part of these initiated actions. This time as well, the force succeeded in its mission to prevent a Hizballah gang from laying charges.

But the battle claimed a bloody price because the Hizballah personnel were the first to open fire.
This fact gives rise to a difficult question: How did the Hizballah personnel succeed in discovering the IDF force which was supposed to be well-hidden? An additional troublesome question: How did the terrorists succeed, in broad daylight, in sneaking up and approaching the force until it was within close range, without being discovered? It is true that from the second they were fired upon, the Golani men operated without fault. They stuck to their mission and fought appropriately. But the circumstances in which the battle was opened demand an exhaustive inquiry, and not only because of the sad results from our point of view, but mainly so that similar events will not recur in the future. Resource:

Friday, April 8, 2011

Survival in Tough Times: Smart Shopping

When economic times are good, you may be inclined to shop with little regard for price or value. But when conditions turn sour, as they have for many Americans, it’s another story. The advertising industry is devoted to identifying what citizens consider significant. Even more so, the market manipulators create those choices. With customers now in short supply and lesser sums to be spent, the competition is as fierce as it is grotesque. As your dollars must be stretched longer and harder, you’d better spend each of them wisely.

What brand of watch do you wear? Whether a top-of-the-line Oysterquartz Datejust, a fashionable Cartier, a respectable Bulova, or an economy Timex, recognize all are battery-operated, with a similar quartz movement, and none fail to keep excellent time. Except for the archaic Rolex, the day of the mechanical Swiss movement is a thing of the past. The current models all do a better job than the "precision" pocket watch your Great-grand-uncle Elmo used as an engineer on the Lackawanna Railroad. The only justification for a high-priced model is self-image and the illusion of prosperity. The value of these qualities is overrated.

And while on the subject of small mechanical devices which serve a need, consider the hyperbole employed by one firm to convince us of the importance of a $600 ballpoint pen. The arguments include an appreciation of beauty and workmanship, the profound emotional experience you receive utilizing a fine writing implement, and the implication you will be admired by clients and associates for your taste and culture. A number of competing firms aggressively promote substantially identical versions, with radio and television ads regularly employed. There are two fascinating aspects of this campaign, the first being that the hired pitchmen manage to keep a straight face while reading their lines. The other is that anyone not certifiably demented actually believes a word of it. Nonetheless, for whatever reason, the pens enjoy a market. On a personal note, the pen in my shirt pocket, with probable value of about 29¢, carries the somewhat worn inscription "Resdeck Plumbing, Redondo Beach, Calif, Your problems are our problems." In the past month I used that pen to sign a variety of documents which, to borrow a line from one of those ads, were truly "admired by my associates."

What can be said about wristwatches and ballpoint pens is equally true as to other highly promoted products. These include magazine offerings, timeshare projects, $300 per ounce bottles of perfume, Las Vegas weekend getaways, and the purchase of lottery tickets, to name just a few. As a rule of thumb, the more overpriced the merchandise, the more innovative its promotion. Perhaps there is a connection, if only because moderately priced items which represent honest value incur less sales resistance, so need not be touted with such vigor. Reflect, for a moment, on the recognizable voices and faces making the outrageous claims. If there’s a benefit to this, perhaps it’s that the association of certain marketing celebrities with a product of any sort saves you the effort of analyzing the offering; you may reject it out of hand.

Let me offer a few other examples of money badly spent. This behavior pattern multiplied and added up over a lifetime represents a fair chunk of your earnings.

Twenty-four rolls of a popular brand of toilet paper is available at Walmart for $10.19. Six rolls of the same product, selling at a major market of $6.46, is easily dropped into a shopping cart. The two-hundred-fifty percent markup doesn’t seem to bother many housewives. It should.

An envelope containing three sheets of paper arrived in the mail yesterday with two 42¢ stamps—total: 84¢. At two ounces, its correct charge is 59¢. Actually it weighed just under an ounce, so the sender evidentially guessed on the high side. Much correspondence arrives with excess postage¾a lazy and expensive way to send mail. As you might guess, my desk drawer contains a small sixteen-ounce postal scale. I’ve owned this little device since 1962 when postage was 4¢ per ounce. Over the years the scale has paid for itself a thousand times.

And speaking of envelopes and paper supplies, where might they be bought cheaply? Except for top-grade rag content or custom-engraved stock, avoid the stationery stores. Even the major discounters are not the places to go. A little comparison shopping reveals paper supply houses offer the lowest prices, and most are open to the general public.

When you fill your car with gasoline, does the lesser-priced regular grade or the higher-priced premium grade end up in your tank? Don’t base your decision on assurances by the service station manager promoting the more expensive fuel, but on performance you can actually experience. The fundamental difference between the two grades is octane number¾burning speed—when in earlier years slower burning helped prevent engine "knock." Because of the lower compression ratios of today's cars, most function satisfactorily on 87-octane fuel. The test is simple to conduct. With the lower octane gas in your tank, accelerate up a slight grade in drive gear. If you experience no unrelenting "pinging" of the engine, then the lower octane gas is working well and you may save yourself the cost of the more expensive fuel.

I hope this message is coming across clearly. You’re not well advised when you make your buying decisions based on urging from shopkeepers or exhortation from advertising. Sharpen your buying habits with a healthy dose of skepticism. Look closely at the product, read the specifications, verify the quality, and compare prices. You’ll often find what is claimed is not what is offered. In most of your purchases you are less familiar with a product than are its vendors. You can overcome this disadvantage with a little effort and by educating yourself. The results are cumulative and your performance will improve with time.

Resource: Woopidoo.Com

£25000 Unsecured Loans – Get Finance Easily Without Any Tensions

If you want an advancement you can avail it the way you dream. You do not crave any property or aid to achieve the same. For this desire £25000 unsecured loans have been constructed. Therefore, with such credit you can now get funds easier than what you have been thinking of. There are no anxiety of estimate of collateral as well.

The sum availed through this credit is less then the secured loans as the borrower is not essential to place any of his assets. The personal property of the borrower's is not valued if the borrower fails to pay back the cash within the given time. The sum which is verify in this credit which has to be paid back on the given duration or the borrower will be responsible for a penalty fee that too with huge rate of interest. Such loans does not need the applicant to pledge any of his property like home as collateral against the loan sum borrowed. Instead, the loan is availed by the borrower's credit status and his ability to pay back the loan.

There are a lot of financial services provided through this way. Therefore, there is no need to take tensions as the support is being offered by unsecured loans. They do not grab debt of certify value of property. At the same time, the time duration taken for concerned advance is very low. He should understand that since these contracts are permitted to a huge amount as interest rate he should move forward towards the lenders providing fabricate prices of the same. He must be careful in repay the sum with interest on time or else that will be another reason for which the borrower's will have to shell out a large amount of cash.

To avail the benefits of £25000 unsecured personal loans, the applicant has to undergo an eligibility test. The procedure simply involves a small detail of the applicant that is more or less similar to the personal information. When all the essential details are verified the borrower gets instant excess to the credit scheme. There is another way of applying for such loans and is none other than the process of Internet. The Online method provides the same advancement at lower rates without processing any fees. The applicant's just has to fulfill an application form and immediately the credit gets dumped in the borrower's bank account. The necessary details are required by the lender such as name, age, address proof, identity proof, current bank account details, account number and lot more are included.

SUMMARY - £25000 unsecured loans are credit which are free from any assets. The interest rate are high due to absence of any security. The applicant can excess this credit by the Online process without paying any amount.